Sunday, August 28, 2016

What we're harvesting in the August garden

Sunday, August 28, 2016

August sees the full swing of the summer, warm season garden harvests.  Late sweet corn (plant corn in succession and different varieties to lengthen the harvest), summer squashes (like zucchini), peppers of all types (sweet to hot, hot), tomatoes, Mediterranean herbs, cucumbers, okra, apples, peaches, pears, grapes, beans, melons, figs, eggplant, honey, artichokes, blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, onion, and fennel are all in season in the Midwest.  

This year, I am growing zucchini, tomatoes, peppers, figs, herbs, greens, sprouting broccoli, Egyptian walking onions, eggplant, cucumbers, goji berry, green beans, and stevia.  My zucchini has faded.  For zucchini, it is a good idea to replant at the beginning of August to keep the harvest going.  Many do the same with tomatoes.  I did plant one later and it does look really healthy.

If you are not growing these in your own garden, your local farmers market is a great place to pick up these seasonal veggies to either eat or preserve.  The best buy on any fruit or vegetable is when it is in season.  You can get even better deals on any produce that has a few blemishes which have no effect on the flavor.  If you are going to can, freeze or dry them, just be sure to remove any blemishes first.

I pick what to have in our garden based on the harvest per foot of garden space needed.  Our garden is incorporated into the flower garden mulch bed and in pots so we have to be choiceful on what to grow.

In pots, we have had great luck with  Egyptian walking onions (which can be harvested year round), peppers, eggplant, zucchini, cucumber, greens, fig, columnar apple, passion flower, sweet bay, and celery.

I have tried sweet and hot peppers in pots and the garden.  Overall, they seem to do the best in pots.  I am growing a couple of hot peppers-a pequin type and an ornamental small purple pepper.  Both are very hot.  I’ll use the tiny peppers in my season salt I make and the purple pepper for hot sauce.  My orange habanero is loaded with peppers but they have not started turning.

My sweet peppers are doing well.  I  have gotten many peppers off my Poinsetta and several off the Tangerine and Pimento.  The Tangerine and Poinsetta are loaded with fruits.  My Ancient Red has not produced any this year, but are flowering.

The zucchini  did well in the ground this year.  It did well in the pot previously.  You just have to be sure you get a variety intended to be grown in a pot for it to fare well.

I have tried tomatoes in pots in previous years and just did not have as good a harvest.  If you get a variety such as Tiny Tim, put it in a roomy pot, and water with a liquid fertilizer daily, you will get good results.  I am just not willing to invest the time to keep it in a pot.  Weekly care for plants in the ground is sufficient.  A pot with a water reservoir in the bottom is the best solution for lengthening the time between waterings when growing in pots.

I grow all of our herbs in the ground except sweet bay.  Sweet bay is a tender perennial and will not survive winters outside so I keep it in a pot to bring in each fall.    I had one last year that was supposed to be hardy in our zone and it didn’t make it.  I put my new ones in pots and will overwinter them in our unheated garage this winter.  Fall is a good time to plant perennial herbs.

Rosemary is also tender.  I have tried the two varieties that are supposed to be able to survive a Midwest winter and finally had one survive this year.  I have tried to also keep in a pot and bring in each winter, but have not had good luck with this approach, but many do.  So, this is an herb I will buy each spring if overwintering does not work out, plant in the garden, then preserve for the winter by harvesting late in the season and drying.

A quick reminder, save the seeds from your best performers to plant next year.  You can replant seeds from any heirlooms or open pollinated plants.  Not only does it save you money, but it also gives you the plants that do the best under your garden and zone conditions.

Saturday, August 27, 2016

September 2016 Edible Garden Planner

Saturday, August 27, 2016

End of summer is a great time to tidy garden beds and harvest herbs.  As the days get shorter, growth slows and before long the sun cannot support all the greenery from summer.  Peppers, tomatoes, eggplant, and cucumbers will keep producing through frost.  Keep the fruits picked to keep them producing.  

Harvesting Herbs
This is the perfect time to harvest your herbs.  You can cut them back so they remain lush, improving the tidiness of your garden, and providing herbs for the winter ahead.  Cutting them back will help the plants build stronger root systems.  Trimming does encourage new growth as well.  You just don't want to prune too close to frost as new growth makes the plant less hardy.

I have cut back the tarragon, sage and basil once this season and they are ready for another hair cut.

I dry my herbs to preserve them.  I put loosely in a paper bag in a dry, warm area out of the sun and let dry naturally.  Loose is the key here so they get good air circulation and do not mold.  They should be completely dry in about 3-4 weeks.  I like putting them in clothes closets to dry as they release such great fragrance and the darkness helps keep the flavor in the herb.

Once dried, remove the leaves from woody herbs and store in an airtight container out of direct sunlight.  If a soft herb like chives, you can just crumble into the airtight container.  I use wide mouth canning jars for herb storage.

If the winter is not a bad one, most perennial herbs like chives, oregano, sage, savory, and thyme can be harvested year round straight from the garden.

Fall planting guide for cool season crops
In September, plant more greens, carrots, and radishes.  October is the month to plant garlic for next year’s harvest.  Time to plant garlic! With growing tips......  Buy early because the most popular varieties sell out early.  I will plant the best cloves from this year's harvest.  I have both regular garlic and elephant garlic to plant.  I like elephant garlic because it produces such huge cloves.

You can pick up transplants like broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, kale, as well as herbs at many big box stores and nurseries since gardening has become so popular. 

Caring for your new seeds and transplants
Like in the spring, newly sown seeds need moisture to sprout.  Keep seeds and transplants moist until they get their first real set of leaves and are well established.  Then water as needed.

Many crops you can harvest into December and beyond, depending on how cold fall is.  Some get sweeter with some frost, like carrots, chard, and lettuce.  With cover, you can harvest all the way through winter!

A quick reminder, save the seeds from your best performers to plant next year.  You can replant seeds from any heirlooms or open pollinated plants.  Not only does it save you money, but it also gives you the plants that do the best under your garden and zone conditions.

Saturday, August 20, 2016

Natural control of grasshoppers

Saturday, August 20, 2016

The devastation of grasshoppers has been legend for eons.  Grasshoppers are locusts and we all recall the 10 plagues of Egypt in biblical times.  The plague of locusts was the eighth plague and ate every living plant in sight. 

Ah, grasshoppers!  They can be devastating to a garden even in modern times.  Grasshoppers can chomp down an entire crop in a day or two. There are several natural ways to help control them besides going on a daily grasshopper hunt.  

We keep a bird feeder close to the garden and have minimal problems with grasshoppers.  Bluebirds, sparrows and larks love grasshoppers.  Other critters that love grasshoppers are snakes, toads, ducks, guinea and chickens.  I have noticed several toads in our garden.  You can also get some really fun toad houses for the garden!

Grasshoppers also hate the smell and taste of garlic.  Make garlic water and spray on plants to repel the grasshoppers from your garden.

Planting deterrent plants like calendula or cilantro around the edge of your garden can help keep them away.  Professional gardeners use cilantro around the edge of their gardens.  Calendula is pretty and edible.

Another option is trapping them.  One approach is a 10 part water to 1 part molasses in a halfway sunken jar buried in the garden that attracts and then drowns them. 

If deterrents, natural predators, picking them off, and traps don’t work, you can take a step up the ladder with sprays.

Organic bug sprays like neem spray or a 1 part vinegar to 3 part water with 1 tbl of soap sprayed on the insect and plant (vinegar can burn plants in really hot temps so try it out in a small area first).  These sprays will kill any insect so be careful in using them.  

Nosema locustae is a microbe that will kill grasshoppers but also beneficial insects in the same family.  It may take a year or two to become fully effective.
Life cycle of the grasshopper

Diatomaceous earth sprinkled on the plants that the grasshoppers love will kill them, as it will kill any other insect that crawls on the leaves that DE is sprinkled on.  It scratches their exoskeleton causing them to get dehydrated and die.  DE is safe for humans and is even eaten by some for health benefits.  

When I first went organic, I had just a swarm of different insects and bugs attacking the garden.  I had read that it takes a year or two for the garden to come into balance.  For the good bugs to figure out that you have a feast of bad bugs in your garden, get there, and multiply to get the bad bugs under control.

The first year was definitely the worst.  I went out and bought beneficial bugs and placed in my garden to help jump start the process.  I also resisted the urge to use sprays to kill the bad bugs on all but the individual plants that were being killed by the bad bugs.  By the third year, no sprays were necessary.

Crop rotation is also a way to keep the pest pressure down.  Many pests have their favorite food and if it isn't there when they emerge in the spring, they will not multiple.
Crop rotation made easy for small gardens

If you have the issue on only one crop or plant, DE would be a good way to get them under immediate control while putting deterrents in place and attracting predators for long term control.

Sunday, August 14, 2016

How to grow cucumbers-in pots or in the garden

Cucumber vines on trellis in the garden
Sunday, August 14,  2016

Cucumbers are a tropical plant and love heat.  They should be started indoors 4 weeks prior to the last frost (mid March in our Zone 6) and transplanted outside after all danger of frost has passed.  You can plant into July and have fruits from August to frost.

Cucumbers have been around for thousands of years and originally from India.  The cucumber arrived in Europe at least 2000 years ago.  The Romans loved them.  Christopher Columbus brought the cucumber with him to Haiti in the 1400‘s and was likely aboard the first ships in Virginia in the 1600’s.

Cucumbers are a good source of potassium, antioxidants like beta carotene, lutein, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin K.  It also has a diuretic properties.  Cucumber nutritional info  Cucumbers have a sweet, refreshing taste.

Cucumbers should be planted in full sun, rich soil, and consistent moisture.  Cucumbers can be grown in pots, on the ground or on a trellis.  If growing in soil, plant 4 seeds in hills 3-4‘ apart and thin to the strongest two.  

Harvest before the fruits turn yellow.  Early fruits have less seeds.  Frequent harvesting also encourages the vine to grow more fruits.

If growing in pots, look for patio, dwarf, bush, or compact in the description.  Some small varieties include Lemon, Suyo, Salad Bush, Fanfare, Sweet Success.  One vine was all we needed to have enough cucumbers to make pickles for the year for my husband and for salads for me.  I also love adding cukes to my smoothies.  
Grow your own smoothie and juice garden
Decorative container gardening for edibles
Make your own pickles without a store bought seasoning mix

This year my first seedlings planted in May didn't make it.  I think there was just too much rain and not enough sun.  I replanted in July three varieties.   I planted seeds for a yellow that can weigh up to 5 pounds (Jaune Dickfleishige), a red (Hmong Red), and 2 white cucumbers (massive producer Dragon's White Egg and Miniature White that is a good container variety) directly into the garden on a trellis.  The whites are both small fruits.  It will be nice to have smaller ones so I can pick one for a single salad or smoothie.   I got my first cucumber this week from the July planting.

Fertilize weekly and keep evenly moist.  Do not let soil completely dry out.  This will result in bitter or hollow fruits.  Each plant produces both male and female flowers.  The first flowers will likely be males.  Don’t be surprised or worried when the first flowers fall off without fruiting.  When the female flowers appear, you will get baby fruits.
Summer garden tips

Don't forget to save seeds from your best producer for next year's garden!
Seed saving-fun, easy and a cost saver

Saturday, August 13, 2016

Make your own teas from garden grown herbs

Savory in foreground, thyme on left, edible day lilies in background
Saturday, August 13, 2016

You can make your own teas from common herbs growing in your garden or to spice up store bought teas.  A few common herbs you may have growing in your garden for your own home grown tea-bergamot, chamomile, lavender, lemon balm, lemon verbena, lemongrass, mint, rosemary, sage, stevia for sweetening, thyme.

Bergamot, or bee balm, has a scent reminiscent of Italian bergamot orange.  You can dry or use fresh, steeped for 10 minutes by itself or add to store bought black tea to give it the same type of flavor as Earl Gray tea.  Bergamot was used as a tea substitute in the colonies after the Boston Team Party in 1773.  Its flowers are also a great bee attractor and come in white or numerous shades of red and purple.  Native Americans used it as spice for fowl and medicinally for its antiseptic properties, headaches, fever, and upset tummies.  Bergamot is of the mint family so can be aggressive in the garden, but is very happy in a pot.  M. didyma contains the highest concentration of oil.  

Chamomile is used in potpourri for its scent, in supplements, tonics and teas for its calming properties, in facial steams/hand soaks to soften and whiten skin.  Use the flowers fresh or dried for tea.

Lavender leaves or flowers can lend a floral note to teas.  Lavender tea is used to sooth nerves, headaches, and dizziness.  Its use as a potpourri is legendary.  It is also great to put in closets to not only provide great scent, but also protect clothes from moths.  It is also used as an antiseptic tonic for acne or to speed facial cell renewal.  Lavender is a typical ingredient in Herbes de Provence.  

You can make a syrup from lavender to add to desserts, adult beverages, homemade sodas, and teas.  Boil 6 stalks of lavender in 2 cups of water and 1 1/2 cup of sugar at a simmer for 15 minutes.  Let sit in refrigerator overnight, strain into bottle and keep refrigerated.   

Mint comes in many flavors-grapefruit, pear, pineapple, lemon, lime, and orange.  There is even a chocolate mint!  Mint will take over a garden if left to its own devices.  Either put a ring around it at least 3” deep to keep it from spreading underground, cull runners frequently or put in a pot.  Mint loses much of its flavor when dried so fresh is your best bet.  Bees love mint flowers!

Other herbs that impart a citrus note are pineapple sage, lemon balm, lemon verbena, and lemon grass.  Pineapple sage is used for depression and anxiety, to aid digestion, and is antiseptic and antifungal.  Lemon balm tea is commonly used for cold relief and to relieve tension and depression.  Fresh leaves have the best flavor.  Lemon verbena is also used for cold relief, upset stomach, and is mildly sedative.  It is a wonderful addition to potpourri and is grown as an annual.  Lemon grass is a tropical plant which any part of the stem can be used as a tea.  It is considered revitalizing and antiseptic.

I have not found a rosemary that survives the winter here in our Zone 6, but I keep trying.  ARP and Barbeque are two types that are rated down to Zone 5 that I am growing this year.  I am going to add some extra straw cover in early winter to give them more protection.  I just love the scent of this herb and as an addition for cooking.  Rosemary is thought to aid in digestion and joint pain.  Use fresh or dried.

Thyme is thought to be beneficial for hangovers, digestion, coughs and colds, along with being one of the staple culinary herbs.  Teas can be made with fresh or dried leaves.  English wild thyme is the strongest for medicinal qualities, but any can be used.  Thyme also comes in lemon, lime, and orange as well.
Bicolor sage
You can also add a fruit to your tea for a new twist.  A neighbor shared that she had some blackberry sage tea that was heavenly.  You can easily make this yourself!  Use dried sage and either fresh or thawed frozen berries.  Simply crush the berries for a teaspoon of juice and add to your steeping sage tea.  Yum!

The only limits to homemade tea from homegrown ingredients is your imagination!  Herbs have so many healthful properties.  It just makes great sense to take advantage of their benefits and taste in warming teas.  A beautiful finishing touch would be to add edible flowers or a sprig of the herb as a garnish.

Stevia is a recent arrival to the US herb scene, but has come on strong in popularity.  It is a super sweet, super antioxidant, with zero carbs, and zero calories.  Stevia is native to tropical regions; it is well suited to container growing.  The trick with stevia is a little goes a long way.  Add too much and it goes from sweet tasting to bitter.  I overwinter my Stevia in a pot in the garage and it does well.  It has pretty little white flowers that the bees and butterflies love.

If you want real tea, you can grow tea plants in pots.  They are easy to grow and there are varieties that are hardy down to Zone 6.  Otherwise, there are great herbal options!

Saturday, August 6, 2016

Harvesting and drying herbs

Basil in center, silvery sage on the left
Saturday, August 6, 2016

Herbs have a tendency to take a walk on the wild side.  Harvesting your herbs throughout the summer helps keep them looking tidy and healthy.  Harvest herbs for seasoning dishes, sauces, meats and dressings for the next year.

When you harvest your herbs, you will have enough for at least 5 families with just a single plant of each type! They make wonderful gifts. 

For soft herbs like chives and garlic chives, I cut around the outside.  Towards fall, you can cut them a couple of inches from the ground.  You can either dry or freeze your cuttings.  I like going ahead and chopping them, letting them dry and putting into jars.  You won't need much because chives are perennials and you can harvest from the plant almost year round.  Quick tip-don’t let chives go to seed
Common chives in bloom
For rosemary, I trim back as I would a tree, cutting off the lower limbs.  I have not been successful in finding a rosemary that survives outside in my Zone 6 region, even the Barbecue rated to Zone 6 and Arp rated to Zone 5.  Before winter, I will harvest all the limbs so I don't waste any of that great flavor.  Rosemary is perfect with lamb, on potatoes, or on cheese bread.

For sage, savory, and thyme, I simply trim them into a pleasing, healthy shape.  For basil, oregano and marjoram, I remove about half of the top growth.  Basil also will not survive even a slight frost.  So when they call for frost, I harvest all that is left on the plant.  You can take cuttings from basil to start the herb in a pot and bring indoors for the winter.  I dry basil gently as it looses its flavor easily.  I also use most of the fresh basil for pesto.  Basil basics-harvesting, preserving, growing basil

I prefer drying my herbs to preserve them.  I put loosely in a paper bag in a dry, warm area out of the sun and let dry naturally.  Loose is the key here so they get good air circulation and do not mold.  They should be completely dry in about 3-4 weeks.  I like putting them in clothes closets to dry as they release such great fragrance and the darkness helps keep the flavor in the herb.

Once dried, remove the leaves from woody herbs and store in an airtight container out of direct sunlight.  If a soft herb like chives, you can just crumble into the airtight container.  I use wide mouth canning jars for herb storage.

If the winter is not a bad one, most perennial herbs like chives, oregano, sage, savory, and thyme can be harvested year round straight from the garden.