Saturday, July 29, 2017

August 2017 Edible Garden Planner

August bounty
Saturday, July 29, 2017

August sees the full production of the summer garden harvests.  Late sweet corn (plant corn in succession and different varieties to lengthen the harvest), summer squashes (like zucchini and straightneck), peppers of all types (sweet to hot, hot), tomatoes, Mediterranean herbs, cucumbers, okra, apples, peaches, pears, grapes, beans, melons, figs, eggplant, honey, artichokes, blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, onion, tomatillos, and fennel are all in season right now.  

A secret to maximizing your peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, tomatillos, and zucchinis is to harvest them continously.  A plant’s driving force is to reproduce so by continuing to harvest, it causes the plant to put on more fruits.  There are many options to preserve the extras: Freezing the extras for winter, drying Dehydrate or sun dry your extra veggies, canning Easy, low tox canning of summer's bounty, and pickling Make your own pickles without a store bought seasoning mix.

Continue to fertilize with a natural, organic fertilizer every month for veggies in the ground and semiweekly for those in containers.  When fertilizing, scratch the fertilizer into the soil around the plant.  If you leave the fertilizer on top of the ground, you will need twice as much as the nitrogen will off gas into the atmosphere if not covered.

Keeping consistent moisture to your plants is key.  Irregular watering causes tomatoes to crack.  Make sure your garden is getting water weekly either from rain or watering, being sure to water deeply at the base of the plant and not on the leaves.  Many warm weather lovers like squash, tomatoes and cucumbers are susceptible to fungal diseases.

If you had any lettuce from early planting, they will have bolted by now.  Take the flower heads off and save the seed.  You can shake the seeds into your self watering pots to get your fall lettuce growing.

Planting for fall and winter vegetables
I know it sounds crazy, but now is the time to plant for fall and winter harvests.  You need to plant early enough for your veggies to be full size when frosts hit.  Add 14 days to the days to maturity listed on the seed packet and back it up from your last frost date.  

Daylight hours determine the growth rate of plants.  Since the days are getting shorter, it will take longer for the plants to come to full maturity in the waning daylight hours of fall than the lengthening hours of spring.  By the first of November, all growth has come to a full standstill until the beginning of January.

If you can't pick up transplants like broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, kale, and herbs at big box stores or a local nursery, you can get transplants from on line nurseries.  Farmers markets may also have them.

Fall planting guide for cool season crops
August is the month for the rest of the greens (arugula, corn salad, lettuce, miner’s lettuce, spinach, mustard, endive), kohlrabi, onions, scallions, cabbage plants, radishes, peas, fava beans and turnips.  

In September, plant more greens, carrots, and radishes.  October is the month to plant garlic for next year’s harvest.  Time to plant garlic! With growing tips......

For more details on varieties to plant, Time to plant for fall and winter harvests!

Caring for your new seeds and transplants
Like in the spring, newly sown seeds need moisture to sprout.  Keep seeds and transplants moist until they get their first real set of leaves and are well established.  Then water as needed.

Many crops you can harvest into December and beyond, depending on how cold fall is.  Some get sweeter with some frost, like carrots, chard, and lettuce.  With cover, you can harvest all the way through winter!

A quick reminder, save the seeds from your best performers to plant next year.  You can replant seeds from any heirlooms or open pollinated plants.  Not only does it save you money, but it also gives you the plants that do the best under your garden and zone conditions.

Saturday, July 22, 2017

Growing beans

Beans on trellis in background
Saturday July 22, 2017

Beans have been cultivated for thousands of years all around the world.  Fave type beans hail from the Old World while the types used for dry and green beans are from the New World.  Pole beans were part of the Three Sisters of Native Americans along with squash and corn.  Not only do they taste great, but they add nitrogen to the soil and are easy to "put away" for winter eating.  

Beans love sun, well drained soil, and a side dressing of fertilizer or compost when planted.  Don't get carried away with fertilizer during the growing season or you will have all greenery and no pods.  Be sure to not water the foliage; stick with watering at the ground to avoid fusarium wilt.

Beans are part of the legumes which include fava beans, shell beans (like the popular red, kidney, Great Northern beans), green beans, lima beans, peanuts, lentils, and soybeans.  Legumes have some of the highest protein in the plant world.  When combined with grains, you get a complete protein like you do from meat or eggs.  Raw bean nutritional info

When you plant beans, be sure to use a rhizobial bacteria inoculant.  You just moisten the seed and coat with the rhizobial powder and plant.  Nitrogen accumulates on the roots of the legume.  Just be sure to not pull the plant when you are done harvesting from it so that the nitrogen stays in the soil!

Beans are summer crops and there are many bush and pole varieties.  Bush varieties come into bear just before pole types and usually have one major flush of beans.  Pole beans produce continuously all summer to frost.  Both require soil temps of at least 60 degrees F.  Start after all danger of frost has passed. Plant 1” deep and as close as 4” apart for pole types and 12” apart for bush types.  Seedlings emerge in 7-14 days.
Trellis completely covered in pole beans
The vining types typically grow to 8 foot long so a trellis is needed.  If you don't have a trellis that tall, just snip the vine when it gets to the top of the trellis or just let them fall over.  They will do just fine that way, just makes it a treasure hunt to find the beans!  I think the most efficient trellis design is one that you can tilt over.  Then the weight of the beans will cause them to hang down, making them a breeze to pick.  If you have the room for this design (you can use one that you can lean against a building), just be sure that it is situated so the vine greenery gets maximum sun.

I grow ours on a 5 foot trellis.  This year I just let them go and the vines are probably at least 10 feet long. they have grown up and then fallen over and are down to the ground and snaking out to find other stalks to vine onto.  They are very happy this year!

Beans can also be grown in either pots or in the ground.  Since beans are growing during the hotter time of year, watering is important to keep them productive.  Just be sure to not water the foliage.  Beans can produce over a long period of time.  To keep them making beans, be sure to harvest frequently.

Runner bean pods are edible and produce beautiful flowers in red, white or peach.  Some are even perennial in Zone 6 and higher.  If you harvest just when the bean seeds begin to swell, you can eat as snap beans.  If you wait, you can dry and eat the bean seeds like any dried bean.

I prefer to grow the “stringless” types so I don’t have to remove the string when I put them up.  Most varieties grown today are stringless if harvested on time.  I freeze my beans since I don’t have enough space to have a huge number of plants.  By freezing, I can harvest every other day and just add the new ones to the freezer bag.  Freezing the extras for winter  If you decide you want to can beans, you'll need a pressure canner as green beans are low acid veggies.  You can pickle beans with just a big pot.  Easy, low tox canning of summer's bounty If you are growing storage beans, just be sure they have dried thoroughly before storing in something like a Mason jar so they don't mold.
Purple podded bean
You get the most beans from those that you eat the whole bean versus shelling type beans.  So, if space is limited, "green bean" types are the best.  I am trying Lima beans and storage beans this year, too.  Both have been flowering, but I have gotten no Lima beans and only a few storage bean pods.  The green bean plants are pumping out the beans!

I like the Romano type beans, the ones that are large and flat.  I also grow the runner beans for their flowers and harvest early for snap beans. The varieties I am growing are vine types-Romano II, Scarlet Runner, Golden Sunshine Runner, Purple Podded and Bean Blauhilde and storage beans-Portal Jade, Good Mother Stollard and King of the Garden lima beans. 

All my vining bean plants look beautiful this year.  I have just now starting watering the garden.  The rule of thumb I use for gardening is that the garden should get a deep watering once a week.  If we haven't gotten a nice drenching rain in more than a week, then I water.  We have a drip hose that runs throughout the garden bed that is covered by mulch.  This keeps the moisture going into the ground instead of evaporating.  Summer garden tips

Saturday, July 15, 2017

What's happening in the mid July garden

July garden at sunset

Saturday, July 15, 2017

We are harvesting Turkish Orange eggplants, zucchini, yellow straight neck squash, peppers, green beans, sprouting broccoli, summer greens, okra, herbs, garlic, onions, and a few tomatoes.   We have been getting steady amounts of rainfall each week so only the pots are needed water.  The flowers are very happy, too! 

This year's garden is the fullest it has ever been.  Really not sure why.  We did the usual spring garden preparation-compost, fertilizer, Azomite minerals, topped with mulch.  Many are saying that their garden is going gangbusters, with the exception of tomatoes.  They are very slow this year and not as bushy.

In the photo above, the background are the pole beans on a trellis, in the foreground are peppers in pots with volunteer zinnias and carrots from last year.  If you don't pull your carrots, the bolt and produce the white flowers you see in the photo.  The seeds will drop in the garden and we will have baby carrots for the fall and winter.  So, when you grow carrots, pull some and leave a few for flowers and self-seeding.  All you need to know about growing carrots

Both the hot and sweet pepper plants have peppers on them.  So far, the sweet pepper Tangerine is the only one with ripe peppers for harvest.  Most of the hot Sicilian pepper plants are covered in green peppers so it should not be long for them.  Peppers are for every taste and garden

Tomatoes are not producing as much as is typical for this time of the month.  We have gotten way more rain than usual this year.  Our grass is still green and lush!  The small tomatoes have given us a few ripe ones.  The plants greenery are not as full as normal and have had baby tomatoes on them for weeks.  Peppers and tomatoes are both pollinating by insects.  With all the rain we have had again this summer, it is likely washing away the pollen, impacting the production of fruits.  

Oregano in bloom
I harvested our garlic a couple of weeks ago and is getting hardening in the shade on our outdoor, covered deck.  Garlic harvest is here!

Our basil has been slow to get started but is now off to the races.  I will take my first harvest in the next week or two, cutting down to the first few sets of leaves.  It will regrow to give me at least one more good harvest before fall.  Basil basics-harvesting, preserving, growing basil  I  have many cardinal basil volunteer plants growing.  They are tiny right now.  Looks like this type is a self-seeder.  Self-seeding crops, plant once and forget 'em

Oregano is in full bloom.  The bees love the flowers!  It could be cut and dried now, but I love the flowers and will wait until fall.  Harvest and preserve your herbs

Lettuce gone to seed
I fertilized all the pots again as well as the veggies in the garden.  It is good to fertilize pots biweekly and garden plants monthly during the growing season to give them the nutrition they need to produce well. Summer garden tips
The lettuce has gone to seed.  When you see the white fuzzies, they are ready to save.  I just pull the seed heads, break apart, put in a ziplock freezer bag, label with type and date, and store in the refrigerator.  I also re-seeded our Earth boxes with some of the seeds.  I had a few small volunteer lettuce plants elsewhere in the garden that I transplanted to the Earth boxes as well.  The lettuce seeds I planted last month have sprouted, but aren’t quit ready to transplant.  Never ending salad from one packet of seeds  Seed saving-fun, easy and a cost saver

In the greens department, summer is a hard time for most greens.  Sprouting broccoli, different types of sorrel, arugula, dandelion greens, corn salad and herbs are all available.  The heat increases the sharpness of greens.  Succession planting of lettuce and planting types that are resistant to bolting can keep your lettuce crop going.  Plant them in the coolest part of the yard where they are not in full sun all day and get shade in the afternoon.  Pots are a good option to be able to move them to the cooler part of the yard.  Growing summer salads  Bolt-free, sweet summer lettuces

Our summer squash plants have kicked in and we were getting 1-2 fruits from each plant each week.  I just love grilled zucchini and summer squash!  I also found that using it as a substitute for pasta is a great way to use them.  What to do with all that zucchini?!  It looks like the vine borer got my zucchini so I'll start another one from seed.  Planting before June 1 makes the plants susceptible, but they grow quickly from seed to replace if that happens.  Everything you need to know to grow squash

We have not had any rain in the last week so I will water the garden.  We have a soaker hose that runs under the mulch, making watering easy.  If you are watering by hand, just be careful not to get the leaves wet.  Many plants are susceptible to fungal diseases.  

Summer garden is in full swing!

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Top 10 Tomato Myths

Tomato plant interplanted in the flower garden
Sunday, July 9, 2017

Tomatoes are by far the most popular vegetable to grow in the United States.  There is nothing like a tomato ripe from the vine!  Many people started gardening by way of the tomato.  They were the very first vegetable we grew.  Many gardeners have the techniques they swear by to get the biggest and best tomatoes.  Here are some tales that are not necessarily true.
  1. Tomatoes love as much sun as possible!  This depends on where you live.  In very hot climates, 6-8 hours is plenty.  Your tomatoes can actually scald in intense sun and heat.  For hot climates, plant your tomatoes in a north to south row so each side gets some shade each day.
  2. You should prune your tomatoes for the best harvests.  This again depends on your climate.  If you live in a hot climate with intense sun and heat, you want to keep the leaves to help protect the tomatoes from sun scald.  If you live in a damp area, you want to prune the tomato plant to allow good air circulation and sunlight.  Tomatoes 101, everything you need to know to grow great tomatoes
  3. Tomatoes love fertilizer!  Actually, you only want to fertilize when you plant and again when the plant flowers.  Too much nitrogen encourages leaf growth.  Some that really sock the fertilizer to the plant end up with a giant green plant with no tomatoes.  To help with flowering, fruiting and blossom end rot, be sure to get a fertilizer with plenty of phosphorous and calcium.  Summer garden tips
  4. Tomatoes can’t be grown in pots.  Tomatoes can be grown in pots, but not the big tomato plants.  Look for dwarf, pot, or patio types in the seed packet or seedling description.  You will need to put in a large pot and be prepared to water often.  Compact tomatoes for small spaces and pots
  5. Tomatoes need to be watered a lot.  Actually, if you water your tomatoes a lot, you can end up with fungal diseases and mushy fruit.  The trick with tomatoes is to keep their moisture even.  Letting the ground crack and then drowning the plant will result in cracked fruit.  In the hot times of the summer, you will likely need to water at least weekly.  Be sure to not water the leaves, but the root.
  6. When you see leaves dropping, something is wrong.  This is a natural progression of the plant.  As fruits begin to form, there is less energy for the leaves and some leaves will turn yellow and die.
  7. A spindly tomato transplant is a bad one.  Actually the hairs on the stems can easily be transformed into roots.  I take my transplants and remove the bottom leaves and plant on its side with only the top 4 leaves above ground.  This gives the plant a good root system.
  8. You can only transplant in early summer. Y Actually, if your tomato plants are starting to fade in mid summer, you can put out new transplants that will give you fruit until the first frost.
  9. When you make sauce, the skins and seeds have to be removed.  I put whole tomatoes into the food processor.  Some say that the skin and seeds can impart a bitter flavor.  With the many types of tomatoes I have raised, this has never been a problem for me.  Preserving the tomato harvest
  10. Only paste tomatoes can be used for sauce.  I use all my tomatoes for sauce.  The best for sauce for me are the most prolific tomato plants.  These have been Yellow Pear and Juliet for us.  I would ask your neighbors which ones give the most fruit if you are looking to put up by freezing or canning.  The consideration for paste tomatoes is that they have more meat and less juice than most other tomatoes so less boiling to get a thick sauce.  Choosing which tomatoes to grow
Last tip:  Tomatoes are susceptible to fungal diseases.  Do try to not plant your tomatoes in the same spot for four years.  Fungal diseases stay in the soil and take a while to die out.  It is best to rotate your tomatoes in the garden each year.  The same goes for a pot.  A way around it for a pot is to use new soil and disinfect the pot each year.  Crop rotation made easy for small gardens

Saturday, July 8, 2017

Growing and harvesting okra

Early July garden with okra and zinnias in the background, chard in the foreground
Saturday, July 8, 2017

Growing okra in the garden is a Southern tradition.  Okra is easy to grown and looks pretty cool, too.  The flowers are reminiscent of hibiscus flowers.  It is a tropical perennial but grown as an annual in zones further north.  They love the heat and are doing great in our Zone 7 garden this year.  

There is much debate about the origins of okra.  Ethiopia, West Africa and Southeast Asia all claim ownership its origin.  Wherever it originated, it came through Egypt to Ethiopia to Arabia and on to the Mediterranean region as far back as the 1100's.  It came to the Americas in the 1600's, landing in North America in the early 1700's.  

Okra is a good source of manganese, magnesium, fiber and vitamins C, K, thiamin, B6 and folate.  okra nutritional info

 This year, I am growing 2 varieties of okra, Red Burgundy and Candle Fire.  I started harvesting from both this past week.  Guess they are like tomatoes, can expect fruits around the 4th of July.  They will produce until frost.  I am getting several off each plant.  You don't need many plants with this long of a season!
Okra flower

Like all veggies, harvesting them keeps them producing more for you.  For okra, you want to harvest them when tender.  They get hard and fibrous quickly so if in doubt, pick them.  I read to harvest them between 2-4" in length.  For the green podded variety, this may be correct.  On the red pods, I have harvesting pods that are 6" long and they are nice and tender.  Typically, you can pick 4-6 days after the flower dies and the pod emerges.  Use a knife to cut the stem of the pod.  Some okra plants have spines.  If yours does, wear gloves when handling them; the spines can cause irritation.
Dwarf okra plant in foreground

They are even tasty eating right off the plant raw.  To preserve them, I am chopping them into slices and putting into freezer bags.

Okra is a key ingredient in gumbo.  It can be used as a thickener in any recipe.

For growing, I started mine from seed then transplanted after all danger of frost had passed, giving 2 feet between plants.  They can also be started directly in the garden or in a pot.  Plants are available at many big box stores or nurseries.  I fertilized with a natural fertilizer and also added Azomite for minerals 10 days after planting.  I fertilized again last month.  I will fertilize monthly while they are producing.  You can buy natural fertilizer or make your own from just a few ingredients.  I either make my own or use Espoma Garden-Tone, Tomato-Tone or Plant-Tone.  Make your own fertilizer, it's all natural and inexpensive

Okra needs about an inch of water each week.  If you are not getting rain, be sure to do a deep watering each week.  If growing dwarf varieties in a pot without a water reservoir, you will likely need to water twice a week.  With a reservoir, weekly will likely be sufficient.  Summer garden tips

Baby red okras
So far, there have been no real pests although aphids, stink bugs and corn earworms are known to like them and they can succumb to fusarium wilt.  I have planted the dwarf varieties and they are about 2-3' tall.  The regular types can grow to 6.5' tall.  

Sunday, July 2, 2017

Mosquito repellant plants & a natural trap

Sunday, July 2, 2017

There are many herbs that work just as well as chemicals to repel mosquitoes.  Here are a few powerhouses:
Rose scented monarda-contains geranoil an ingredient used in some commercial natural repellants
Lime basil-great for cooking and repelling the pesky blood suckers
Catnip has been found to be more effective than DEET in studies
Holy basil-you can use seeds floated in water to kill mosquito larvae
Thyme-repels as well or better than DEET
Lemon grass and citrosa geraniums rich in citronella
Herbs also do well in pots so you can put them right where you need them!

Natural mosquito trap:
Use a quart jar.
Mash 1 cup fruit and allow to ferment in the sun 1-2 days.
Mix fermented fruit, 3 teas sugar, 1/2 teaspoon boric acid, and 2 drops jasmine essential oil in the quart jar with a lid punched with several 1/16” holes in lid.

Saturday, July 1, 2017

It's Pepper Harvest Time!

Potted pepper with nasturtiums
Saturday, July 1, 2017

For preserving the pepper harvest, you have some options-drying, freezing, pickling. I have also seen creative pepper jelly and preserve recipes for canning.  They sound really fun.  I may have to try a couple of them this fall.  Canning is much nicer to do when it has cooled off.  Peppers keep producing until a hard frost so there is lots of time left to experiment with preservation options!
Beautiful red Pimento pepper, ready to harvest

Peppers love summer warmth.  Surprisingly, when it gets too hot (in the 90’s) they can start to drop flowers and get sunburned.  So, don’t be surprised when they are not as perky as earlier in the season.  They will come back when the temperatures get out of the stratosphere.  During extreme heat waves, they appreciate some shade.
If you have your peppers in pots, you can just roll them into a spot that gives some relief.  If they are in the ground, you can use a shade cloth, or a piece of picket fence or screen on the south or west side of the plant.  Or just wait for nature to take its course.
I have tried growing peppers in the ground or in a pot.  They do better in a pot, especially the hot peppers.
My peppers are doing great in their pots.  I have been getting fruits off them for the last month.  The spicy peppers seem to just produce more than the sweet peppers.  I keep trying different kinds of sweet peppers to find one that can keep up with their hot cousins!
As the temps start getting back into the low 90’s this next week, I will give them a boost of liquid bat guano and kelp when I water.

Ancho/poblano pepper
I am planning on drying the Ancho peppers for chile powder.   I’ll freeze all my extra peppers to use throughout the year.  We love warm foods on fall football game day!
Peppers dry easily.  The quickest way is to put in a dehydrator.  Just slice in half and pop in.  If you don’t have a dehydrator, you can use your oven on its lowest setting.  This year, I have just been leaving them on the window sill and they appear to be drying just fine.  You can also put on a screen in the sun or hang in a dry place.  The watchout for drying outside is the level of humidity.  In high moisture, they may spoil versus dry.

The JalapeƱos and cayennes I freeze whole to use in salsa throughout the winter and spring.  I chop and freeze the Pimentos to use in salad.  It is a key ingredient in the salad we love from the Pasta House restaurant.  Typically, any food gets soft when thawed.  The Pimentos I have chopped and frozen retain their firmness after thawing.